Beethoven’s Goodbye to all that

Beethoven’s Goodbye to all that


norman lebrecht

June 13, 2020

Welcome to the 84th work in the Slipped Disc/Idagio Beethoven Edition

Piano sonata no 26, ‘Les Adieux’, opus 81a (1809)

The last of Beethoven’s truly popular sonatas, it has three movements titled: farewell, absence, return. In other words, a piece of music intended to appeal to anyone who has parted from a loved one, endured a long emptiness and embraced a reunion. Simple, really.

Except nothing about Beethoven’s descriptions is unequivocal. He wrote the sonata as Vienna was under siege by the French. It was a horrible time for the composer, living in his brother’s underground cellar and barely able to create. He reported to his publisher: ‘I tell you that since May 4th, I have brought into the world little that is connected; only here and there a fragment. The whole course of events has affected me body and soul…. What a disturbing, wild life around me; nothing but drums, cannons, men, misery of all sorts.’

Yet his publisher gave the sonata a French title and Beethoven went along with it. The subtitles are in both French and German. Above the three first chords Beethoven wrote the syllables ‘Le-be-wohl’, German for farewell. He’s either ambivalent about the Austrian withdrawal, or he’s upset about having French culture and language in Vienna. Not until Gustav Mahler in Das Lied von der Erde will we see a composer caught in such agonised indeterminacy over an unspecified parting. What, exactly, was Beethoven suffering? The first chord is tentative, the second weak and the third deeply sombre. The official Austrian narrative has it that the sonata laments the forced departure of the Archduke Rudolf, Beethoven’s friend and patron. He might have been sad about it, but not that sad. Whatever the sonata is about, it is neither autobiography or self-analysis. Beethoven is telling, for the first and only time in a sonata, a story.

There are almost 100 recordings to choose from and the philosophical differences are not deep enough to warrant prolonged discussion. Mostly, it’s a matter of taste. Arthur Schnabel is a masterful, no-fuss storyteller who grips the attention with slight shifts of emphasis and a perpetual twinkle in his fingers. Claudio Arrau winds up the tension, Emil Gilels the pathos. Among the older pianists I find myself returning inexorably to Arthur Rubinstein although my reasons may be more sentimental than music-critical. Rubi was such a My Way pianist. Nobody has a touch like his.

Given the relative lack of profundity, any of the prolific mid-century pianists will satisfy – among them, Barenboim, Ashkenazy, Brendel, Kempff, Pollini and Schiff.

Two living pianists stand out. The American veteran Richard Goode has a sober authority that dispels extraneous thoughts about Beethoven under siege and allows us to focus on music as music. The young Frenchman David Kadouche (2019) seems to breathe more easily in this sonata than many of his contemporaries: his interpretation has an organic feel about it, relieved of historical considerations.

Variations in D major on an Original Theme for Piano op. 76

Also known as the Turkish March, this set consists of variations Beethoven wrote on a theme of his own devising, nothing to do with the Turks. He used it elsewhere as incidental music to the play ‘The Ruins of Athens’ and it achieved lasting popularity.

Ronald Brautigam plays them with great restraint on a fortepiano. Alfred Brendel clatters them against the ramparts. Between these extremes, the French pianist Brigitte Engerer has a deft and delicate touch that perfectly suits these trivial morsels. And Sviatoslav Richter just does his own thing.


  • Edgar Self says:

    There’s a good version by Rubinstein. “Les Adieux” is the only complete sonata issued commercially from Cortot’s very late cycle, a curious, precious souvenir of a great artist who died 58 years ago on 15 June 1962 in Lausanne.

  • Greg Bottini says:

    No mention at all of the brilliant Gulda?
    And yet the dull Brendel and the fortepianist Brautigam are listed. The first, a career-long bore, and the second, a museum curator.
    I’ll stick with Schnabel, Gilels, and Rubinstein, thanks.
    Plus, of course, Gulda.

  • fflambeau says:

    Not on topic (please forgive me), but the is replaying its gala (4 hours long). It is wonderful.

  • Pianofortissimo says:

    Don’t forget Wilhelm Backhaus, who seemed to have a kind of ‘special relationship’ to ‘Les Adieux’ – he played this sonata very often, probably this is the Beethoven sonata of which he left more recordings than any other.

  • Piano fan says:

    For a more contemporary take, Murray Perahia recorded a fine version on CBS (now Sony).

  • Edgar Self says:

    Brendel paints, writes poetry, has a professional musician son, admires and writes ab0ut three of my favorite artists … Cortot, Furtwaenglr, and Edwin Fischer … and plays the piano better than I do,which is enough evenfor one lifetime. I’ve attended several of his recitals and found them respectable but unexciting, prefering some of his earliest records for Vox of Beethoven variations, eeven Liszt and Balakirev’s “Islamey Oriental Fantasy”.

    Cura is entitled to his opinion, as everyone here is including pqrticularly Greg, who is J find invariably knowledgeable, experienced, and sharing many opinions incluing this one. Rubinstein and Brendel themselves have said they like their earlier records better than their later ones, a vew largely borne out by th records.

    A difference of opinion does not imply ny deficiency, just another view, experience, and taste. We are all expressing opinions here; it’s what makes Norman and his Kaffee-Klatsch interesting, fun, provocative, and often a source of unexpected information.

    • Edgar Self says:

      Luca, not Cura, scusi. lLuca is a favorite Italian prenom and Inspector Maigret’s lieutenant. My fingers thought otherwise. I’d been thinking again of Jose Curas Anhelo” CD, Pablo Neruda, and Eduardo Delgado fromRosario, birthplace of CheGuevara.

      Norman’s “goodbye to all that” is an allusion to Robert Graves’s memoir., whereas Beethovens adieux were to his pupil the Archduke Rudolph, future cardinal archbishop of Vienna, of Archduke Trio and Missa Solemnis fame.

  • Ken says:

    Rudolf Serkin also offered a worthy interpretation of this sonata. One feels the siege and relishes the return.

    A snippet: