1944, exact date of death unknown

1944, exact date of death unknown


norman lebrecht

October 17, 2019

Seventy-five years ago today, a train from Theresienstadt arrived at Auschwitz. Among those crammed into its standing-room cattle trucks on a journey of almost 24 hours were four composers:

Viktor Ullmann

Hans Krasa

Pavel Haas

Gideon Klein.

All four were murdered in the gas chambers, either immediately on arrival or a few hours later on the following day. The date was either 17 or 18 October.

Never forget.


  • double-sharp says:

    The incredible story of how the score of The Emperor was smiggled out of the Third Reich is one of the great inspiring tales in opera. It remains his testament – yet astronishingly if is flushed with black humour and irony.

    The notes don’t burn.

  • Thanks Norman. I wrote many articles on Theresienstadt and ‘Entartete composers’. Many of the are in English too


  • About Ullmann, his Der Keizer and the production of the opera in Amsterdam in 2016 (only in Dutch, I’m sorry)


  • John Borstlap says:

    As long as classical music as a genre exists, it will not be forgotten. And: as long as institutions like Arte Exil (Vienna) keep the flame of rememberance of time past alive.

  • mhtetzel says:

    Yes, never forget.

  • Harold Lewis says:


  • NYMike says:

    Beautiful performance!

  • Martinu says:

    Panel Haas’ second string quartet is a masterpiece. I listen to it repeatedly.
    Ullman’S Kaiser from Atlantis is a masterpiece as well.
    Gideon Klein’s trio another one.
    Listen to those works and others, and never forget

  • Dave T says:

    Thank you to the many musicians, record companies, institutions, scholars, bloggers, patrons, and listeners who have worked for and continue to keep their music and memories of them alive.

    There are good people in this world, as well.

  • Larry W says:

    Extraordinary piece. Fantastic performance by a quartet from Colburn.

  • Herbert von Solti says:

    This is just amazing. I created a playlist consisting of these gentlemen’s works along with Erwin Schuloff out of respect…..I never knew that they arrived together and that they weren’t sure of exact date of death. But
    I know this…..I enjoy all of their music. Such a tragedy as these men could have greatly influenced Music in the later 20th Century.